Connect with us

Industry

How to Prepare Samples for XRF Analysis?

Published

on

Proper sample preparation is of paramount importance in any quantitative analysis method, including X-ray fluorescence analysis, although the XRF method has an advantage over other quantitative analysis methods in this regard, since it requires relatively simple sample preparation for measurement. There are various methods for sample preparation prior to chemical composition analysis using XRF spectrometers. The choice of a specific method depends on the task, in particular the required accuracy, marginal cost and labor intensity of the process. As a rule, along with an increase in the accuracy of analysis due to the chosen method of sample preparation, the price and complexity of this method also increase.

Basic requirements for samples for XRF analysis:

• The measured sample must be representative of the rest of the sample, i.e. reflect its composition as a whole, and not its specific area

• The sample must be homogeneous and have a smooth surface.

• The sample must remain stable throughout the measurement.

• Sufficient sample thickness (usually in the order of millimeters).

It should be noted that a sample preparation method other than that used to calibrate the instrument should not be used, since the measurement of a powder sample with an instrument calibrated on solid samples will have negative effect on the accuracy of the analysis. Let us consider in more detail the main sample preparation methods used in XRF guns.

Solid samples

When analyzing solid samples such as alloys or precious metals, it is important to have a clean, flat surface on which to measure. In the case of an uneven surface, X-rays scattered by different points on the surface will travel different distances before hitting the detector, and the rays scattered from more distant points on the surface will scatter more strongly in the environment, which can lead to errors in the measurement results. To obtain a smooth and flat surface, the sample is usually ground. However, even if the sample already has a fairly smooth surface, it should still be cleaned before measurement. Solid samples should be cleaned with a file, and different files should be used for different types of samples, because if, for example, a copper alloy is cleaned with a file that was used to clean aluminum before, aluminum particles brought to the surface will be detected during measurement.

Powder samples

For the analysis of powder samples, such as soils, it is necessary to finely grind a mass sufficient for the analysis (usually about 15 grams) of the sample, and ensure its homogeneity by thoroughly mixing. The accuracy of the analysis in the case of powdered samples will be the higher, the more thoroughly the sample is crushed. The resulting powder is placed in a special cuvette, and measured in this form.

An alternative is to compact powdered samples. As in the previous method, the sample must be finely ground before compaction, ideally the particle size should not exceed 75 nm. This method is more complicated and time consuming than measuring powders in cuvettes, but provides a better quantification result due to the absence of empty areas between particles in the cuvet.

Liquid samples

Similarly to powder samples, liquids are measured by pouring them into special cuvettes. However, it should be noted that for the measurement of liquids, unlike powders, only open cuvettes are used, since liquids partially evaporate over time, which leads to film swelling in closed cuvettes. An important role in the measurement of liquids is played by the choice of the film covering the cuvette. Different films have different characteristics, such as X-ray transparency or strength, and the choice depends largely on the task.

Fusion

The most time-consuming and expensive option for sample preparation for X-ray fluorescence analysis is the fusion of the test sample with a flux with a flux/sample ratio from 5 to 1 to 10 to 1. To do this, the sample is melted at a temperature of 900-1000C, mixed with flux and placed in a mold with a flat bottom. The advantage of this method is the reduction of the influence of mineralogical and matrix effects on the analysis results, which makes it possible to obtain more accurate results in the analysis of the elemental composition. However, due to the strong dilution of the sample, this method of sample preparation has a negative effect on the detection limits for elements contained in the sample at low concentrations.

Conclusion

Thus, there are many methods for preparing a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the choice of the most appropriate method in a particular task is to find a balance between the required accuracy of the results, the cost and the complexity of sample preparation.

Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Industry

What Are Feminized Seeds?

Published

on

what-are-feminized-seeds

About 50% of normal cannabis seeds grow into male plants that do not produce a crop. Edible buds are formed only on female plants. Male plants are needed exclusively to pollinate female plants to produce seeds. Those who grow marijuana at home or on an industrial scale, get rid of male plants by hand, save time and effort, and therefore immediately plant feminised seeds.

What are feminized seeds, and how are they formed?

Feminized cannabis seeds produce 100% female plants. You can find such seeds in the Herbies online store, where consumers are offered planting material of more than 10 productive and interesting varieties. You can order this if your area allows the cultivation of cannabis.

Marijuana seeds are feminized through genetic manipulation. This is usually done using colloidal silver, so these varieties are slightly more expensive than regular seeds. However, given that each such plant yields a harvest, the gardener, on the contrary, saves. At the same time, the problem of the fact that efforts and resources are spent on growing male individuals is solved. So, feminized marijuana is still a profitable investment for the future crop.

Features and pros of feminized seeds

You already know that growing this type of cannabis is less difficult, and the entire harvest is usable. However, there are certain nuances that every beginner should know about before starting.

  1. When growing in room conditions, for such plants, you need to manually adjust the lighting mode so that they start to bloom.
  2. It is important to comply with climatic requirements when planting plants in open ground. The main secret is the quality of the soil and timely sowing.

Feminized seeds produce buds approximately 60 days after germination. Some stamps may have their characteristics, so familiarize yourself with the characteristics of each variety separately before ordering.

How to grow healthy plants and get a good harvest?

Each variety has a specific list of needs. However, the general rules of cultivation are similar:

  • Feminized cannabis strains grow best in temperate climates, so the optimum temperature for growing marijuana is 21 °C. If you cannot guarantee this temperature in the field, it is better to try indoor cultivation. At home or in a greenhouse, it will be easier for you to apply cooling or heating as needed.
  • The level of humidity depends on the stage of plant development. It should be quite high during the vegetative period, but during the flowering period, it is necessary to reduce the air humidity to 40-50%.
  • Not only feminized varieties, but also any cannabis loves well-aerated soil enriched with nutrients. It is best to use soil prepared in advance or purchased at an agricultural store for planting.
  • Fertilizers for growing marijuana are divided into two types: for the vegetative and flowering periods. First, fertilizers based on potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen are applied, which helps the plant to produce strong shoots. Therefore, at the stage of flowering, seedlings need other nutrients, in particular calcium, iron, and magnesium.

It is very important not to neglect any of these steps if you are going to get good buds that contain THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids. The formation of these substances is based on specific chemical and biological reactions. The actions described above are aimed at ensuring that the plant copes with this task as well as possible.

Continue Reading

Industry

How Does Rust Affect Boats?

Published

on

how-does-rust-affect-boats

Boats are a great way to spend time outdoors. Whether you’re fishing, sailing, or just cruising around, boats can provide hours of fun. But did you know that rust is one of the biggest threats to the lifespan of your boat? Rust can cause myriad of issues on boats, from aesthetic damage to structural integrity.

Let’s explore the four main types of corrosion that occur on boats and what you can do to prevent them.

Uniform corrosion

This corrosion occurs when there is an even distribution of rust across a single surface. For example, if you notice a reddish-brown coating on your boat’s hull, this is likely uniform corrosion. This corrosion is caused by exposure to salt water or air pollutants that contain corrosive elements like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. Paints made from polyurethane material like Durable boat paint effectively treats uniform corrosion in boats. The polyurethane material forms a chemical barrier between the metal surface and the surrounding environment, preventing water and air from reaching the metal substrate. It is also extremely abrasion resistant and offers superior adhesion to the metal surface for increased protection.

Pitting corrosion

Pitting corrosion occurs when small holes or indentations form on metal surfaces due to oxidation over time. It usually happens in areas where saltwater pools or stagnates after long periods without movement or cleaning, like crevices in the hull or between parts of the boat like bolts and screws, making pitting corrosion difficult to detect until it has already caused significant damage to the metal surface. Therefore, regular inspection is key in preventing pitting corrosion from occurring on your vessel.

Crevice corrosion

Crevice corrosion is one of the most damaging forms and can occur when saltwater seeps into tight spots like joints or cracks. The most common environmental factors that lead to crevice corrosion are lack of oxygen circulation and temperature fluctuation. The water can also contain chemical agents such as chlorine which worsen the damage over time. Fortunately, there are several simple preventative measures to guard against crevice corrosion. All joints should be carefully sealed using marine-grade sealants specifically designed for salty environments. All exposed metal surfaces should be immediately washed with fresh water after use in a seawater environment to ensure no contaminants accumulate and cause further damage later.

Galvanic corrosion

This type of corrosion happens when two metals with opposite electrochemical potentials happen to be in contact with each other while submerged in an electrolyte, in this case, seawater. When this happens, electrons flow between both metals, which causes one metal to rust faster than normal while protecting the second metal from corroding, a phenomenon known as galvanic protection. To prevent galvanic corrosion from occurring on your boat’s hull, ensure all fittings and fixtures are made from compatible materials so they don’t react adversely when submerged together for extended periods while at sea.      

Conclusion

Rust can be devastating for boats because it weakens structural integrity and causes aesthetic damage through discoloration or staining. However, taking proactive steps toward prevention could save you lots of money. Understanding how each type of rust works and taking steps towards prevention, such as regular maintenance, can keep your vessel looking beautiful for years ahead.

Continue Reading

Industry

Get to Know Facts about Australian Casino Modern Industry and History

Published

on

facts-about-australian-casino-modern-industry-and-history

The modern casino industry in Australia is a relatively new one. Although gambling has been taking place in the country for centuries, it was only in the last few decades that casinos began to be established on a large scale. Today, there are over 20 major casinos operating in Australia, with the best new online casino australia also in operation. The industry is now worth billions of dollars each year and employs thousands of people.

Australian Casino History

The history of casinos in Australia is a long and varied one. Casinos have been a part of the Australian landscape for over two hundred years, with the first establishment opening in Hobart in 1821. Since then, casinos have popped up all over the country, with the majority concentrated in the major cities of Sydney, Melbourne and Perth.

The early history of casinos in Australia was shaped by many factors, including the influx of Chinese immigrants during the gold rush era and the various colonial governments’ establishment of legal gambling venues. Casinos began to flourish in the early 20th century as they became increasingly popular with local and tourist populations.

However, the casino gambling industry was dealt a significant blow in 1973 when the Federal Government passed the Casino Control Act, which severely restricted the operation of casinos in Australia. This led to many establishments closing down, and the industry declined.

The modern industry in Australia only began to take shape in the late 1990s, when the Federal Government introduced several reforms that relaxed the restrictions on casino operations. These reforms led to a resurgence in the industry, with many new dollar deposit casinos opening up across the country.

Today, the Australian industry is worth billions of dollars and employs thousands of people. It is connected with different spheres like music, movies production, etc. Over thirty establishments are operating in Australia, with the majority concentrated in the major cities of Sydney, Melbourne and Perth.

Key Figures in the Growth of the Australian Gambling Industry

There are the key figures that influenced the development of the Australian casino industry:

  • James Packer. As the son of the late media mogul Kerry Packer, James Packer inherited a vast fortune and has used it to become one of the most powerful figures in the Australian casino industry. He is the current chairman of Crown Resorts, which owns and operates two of Australia’s largest establishments, Crown Perth and Crown Melbourne.
  • Lloyd Williams. Lloyd Williams is another major figure in the Australian industry. He is the owner of Crown Casino in Melbourne, as well as several other casinos around the world. Williams is also a prominent horse racing figure and has been involved in some of the biggest races in Australia.
  • John Fairfax Holdings. John Fairfax Holdings is a large media company in Australia, and it also has a significant presence in the best online gambling industry. Fairfax owns The Star Casino in Sydney, as well as several other clubs around the country.
  • Solon Capital. Solon Capital is a private equity firm that has a large stake in Crown Resorts. Solon Capital is also an investor in several other major Australian companies, including Qantas and Telstra.
  • Lawrence Ho. Lawrence Ho is a Hong Kong-based businessman who is one of the largest shareholders in Crown Resorts. He is also the chairman and CEO of Melco Resorts & Camp; Entertainment, which owns and operates several establishments for real money in Macau.

The Modern Australian Gambling Industry

The modern Australian gambling industry is a multi-billion-dollar business and employs thousands of people across the country. The industry has been growing steadily for the past few decades and shows no signs of slowing down.

There are currently over 20 establishments with a casino bonus operating in Australia, with most of them located in Queensland. The largest establishment in the country is The Star Gold Coast, located just outside Brisbane. Other famous clubs include Crown Melbourne, Crown Perth, and Skycity Darwin.

The Commonwealth Government regulates the Australian gambling industry through the Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development. All clubs must comply with strict regulations regarding their operation, including minimum standards for safety and security.

Casinos offer high level of gambling excitement for their patrons, providing traditional table games such as blackjack and roulette and electronic gaming machines (EGMs). They also offer various other services, such as restaurants, bars, hotels, and entertainment venues.

The Future of the Australian Gambling Industry

The Australian gambling industry is forecast to grow significantly over the next decade. This growth will be driven by a number of factors, including the continued expansion of the Chinese economy and the growing popularity of gambling among the middle class. In addition, the Australian government is expected to loosen regulations around online gambling, which will further boost the industry.

As such, there are plenty of opportunities for those looking to invest in the gambling industry. However, it is important to choose the right investment opportunity and understand the risks involved. The gambling industry is a risky investment, but with careful planning and research, it can be a very profitable one. If you’re thinking about investing in this industry, contact an experienced financial advisor to learn more.

Conclusion

The Australian gambling industry is a modern and thriving sector with a long and exciting history. Over 100 casinos are operating across the country, providing visitors with a wide range of gaming and entertainment options. The industry employs thousands of people and generates billions of dollars annually.

Continue Reading

Trending