Proper sample preparation is of paramount importance in any quantitative analysis method, including X-ray fluorescence analysis, although the XRF method has an advantage over other quantitative analysis methods in this regard, since it requires relatively simple sample preparation for measurement. There are various methods for sample preparation prior to chemical composition analysis using XRF spectrometers. The choice of a specific method depends on the task, in particular the required accuracy, marginal cost and labor intensity of the process. As a rule, along with an increase in the accuracy of analysis due to the chosen method of sample preparation, the price and complexity of this method also increase.
Basic requirements for samples for XRF analysis:
• The measured sample must be representative of the rest of the sample, i.e. reflect its composition as a whole, and not its specific area
• The sample must be homogeneous and have a smooth surface.
• The sample must remain stable throughout the measurement.
• Sufficient sample thickness (usually in the order of millimeters).
It should be noted that a sample preparation method other than that used to calibrate the instrument should not be used, since the measurement of a powder sample with an instrument calibrated on solid samples will have negative effect on the accuracy of the analysis. Let us consider in more detail the main sample preparation methods used in XRF guns.
When analyzing solid samples such as alloys or precious metals, it is important to have a clean, flat surface on which to measure. In the case of an uneven surface, X-rays scattered by different points on the surface will travel different distances before hitting the detector, and the rays scattered from more distant points on the surface will scatter more strongly in the environment, which can lead to errors in the measurement results. To obtain a smooth and flat surface, the sample is usually ground. However, even if the sample already has a fairly smooth surface, it should still be cleaned before measurement. Solid samples should be cleaned with a file, and different files should be used for different types of samples, because if, for example, a copper alloy is cleaned with a file that was used to clean aluminum before, aluminum particles brought to the surface will be detected during measurement.
For the analysis of powder samples, such as soils, it is necessary to finely grind a mass sufficient for the analysis (usually about 15 grams) of the sample, and ensure its homogeneity by thoroughly mixing. The accuracy of the analysis in the case of powdered samples will be the higher, the more thoroughly the sample is crushed. The resulting powder is placed in a special cuvette, and measured in this form.
An alternative is to compact powdered samples. As in the previous method, the sample must be finely ground before compaction, ideally the particle size should not exceed 75 nm. This method is more complicated and time consuming than measuring powders in cuvettes, but provides a better quantification result due to the absence of empty areas between particles in the cuvet.
Similarly to powder samples, liquids are measured by pouring them into special cuvettes. However, it should be noted that for the measurement of liquids, unlike powders, only open cuvettes are used, since liquids partially evaporate over time, which leads to film swelling in closed cuvettes. An important role in the measurement of liquids is played by the choice of the film covering the cuvette. Different films have different characteristics, such as X-ray transparency or strength, and the choice depends largely on the task.
The most time-consuming and expensive option for sample preparation for X-ray fluorescence analysis is the fusion of the test sample with a flux with a flux/sample ratio from 5 to 1 to 10 to 1. To do this, the sample is melted at a temperature of 900-1000C, mixed with flux and placed in a mold with a flat bottom. The advantage of this method is the reduction of the influence of mineralogical and matrix effects on the analysis results, which makes it possible to obtain more accurate results in the analysis of the elemental composition. However, due to the strong dilution of the sample, this method of sample preparation has a negative effect on the detection limits for elements contained in the sample at low concentrations.
Thus, there are many methods for preparing a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and the choice of the most appropriate method in a particular task is to find a balance between the required accuracy of the results, the cost and the complexity of sample preparation.
Critical Things to Consider When Choosing a Portable Sandblaster
Purchasing or renting equipment for your workshop or professional company can be challenging, especially if you are looking for something sophisticated like a sandblaster. However, keeping a few key points in mind can make the job a tad easier, enabling you to get the best one possible for your needs.
To illustrate: when it comes to a sandblaster portable ones are best since you can quickly move them from one site to others, allowing you to do a more accurate job on site. There are other benefits of using this variant, some of which are elucidated below.
Also, the following information contains vital aspects to remember when selecting a portable machine for your blasting needs.
Of all the sandblasting machines, the portable variety is the most sought-after because of its reliability and remarkable features. For one, it has a manual media valve that allows you to control the mix for maximum efficiency. Next, good models allow you to choose from various depressurization options, such as pressure hold, auto-depress, or a combination of both. Lastly, reliable ones have pressure valves approved to work up to 150 PSIG.
Besides the above-listed qualities, ensure the machine you wish to buy has robust steel that gives it durability and strength.
When it comes to capacity, note that portable sandblasters come in various tank capacities, which determine the amount of abrasive media that can fit, impacting the blasting autonomy. While the tank capacities differ from one supplier to another, it typically ranges from 3.5 cu.ft., which gives approximately fifteen minutes of blasting autonomy, up to 20 cu.ft. (or more), giving roughly an hour and thirty minutes of autonomy.
Note that the bigger the tank capacity, the larger and heavier the machine, making it less portable. So, determine which one suits your specific requirements more accurately, depending on the autonomy and the ease of portability you seek.
Indoor applications occur in a blast booth with a reclaiming system with a storage hopper fitted on top of the blast pot. Typically, a 6.5 cu.ft.-blast pot that can be fed from the storage hopper is used for practically unlimited blasting autonomy.
Where and how can it be used?
The portable model is convenient in various applications across diverse industries, primarily due to its ergonomic features and lightweight. Popular examples include industrial facilities that require daily cleaning of a range of metal pipes and other surfaces, civil construction companies, and automotive manufacturers. It is also widely convenient in the agricultural and mining sectors, wherein experts often apply blasting to clear debris from large appliances.
But what is it used for?
The machine can reduce more than ninety percent of human effort in cleaning various surfaces of debris, rust, and other unwanted elements. It can also remove different kinds of paints and carbon deposits within a matter of minutes, besides making a rough exterior incredibly smooth. Moreover, you boost their longevity and quality by using the appliance to keep metal surfaces and machines clean. One of its most amazing perks is that it allows operators to work on challenging corners, metal edges, and surfaces that are otherwise impossible to reach.
So, ensure it has all the above qualities before making the purchase.
Besides checking the features of the sandblaster, portable or not, you should carefully vet the vendor you wish to buy from. It will ensure you receive the best product for your requirements, enabling you to save money and time. For instance, consider if they supply other equipment that may suit your industry, such as spray systems, dust collection machinery, shot blasting tools, solvent distillation, and industrial washers.
Similarly, check if their products meet industry standards, quality assurance, and other guidelines, ensuring safety. Also, it helps to find a manufacturer who can customize products as per your specifications, allowing you to avail yourself of the most accurate machines for the task. Lastly, choosing a supplier with decades of experience and high standards is critical, as it will help you rely on them for all your equipment needs for years to come.
Business Training Has Gone High-Tech in Every Industry
Have you been through a work-based training program lately? Or, if you’re an owner or manager, have you designed one? Gone are the days when new hires spent the first few days of their jobs reading through corporate manuals and signing off on having completed training courses that consisted of nothing but short written tests.
Today’s new employees go through highly structured processes called onboarding, which typically consists of a combination of on-the-job training, shadowing an experienced team member, and assorted tests that actually measure how much information they’ve absorbed. One of the main reasons businesses fail is making poor choices in the recruiting and onboarding stages. In the majority of organizations, bringing a fresh worker into the company family takes between a week and three months, depending upon how complex the work is. For staff accountants, day one might include taking part in a live client engagement and watching the team in operation.
Drivers who earn their living on the road in the transport industry might spend hours in simulators and then use dashcams for interactive ride-along sessions on their first few routes. Securities brokers in the 2020s will discover that their early weeks behind the desk are mostly spent on the phone, conversing with real or fictitious clients. There’s a lot of role-playing for brokerage workers because the job still involves a huge amount of customer contact. Human Resources functionaries face hours of online reading and testing on a wide range of topics regarding legal compliance. Finally, in a healthcare environment that’s top-heavy with technology, new hires learn about telehealth and secure data storage applications. The following details reveal a modern workplace that is inundated with technology from top to bottom.
The truck transport sector is more technologically sophisticated than outsiders realize. For instance, real-time, high-resolution dash cams are now a standard component of the modern cab. Via video hookup, fleet supervisors can visually ride along with drivers during lengthy training sessions. There is multiple safety and financial benefits to operating this way. It’s important for anyone in the transport industry to understand the inherent advantages of using live streaming cams to teach drivers the essential aspects of their jobs. To learn more about the process, review a detailed guide that explains how driver privacy is safeguarded, how live-streaming happens in real delivery situations, what the benefits are, and how to select the most suitable in-cab dashcams for your company’s vehicles.
For professionals in the accounting field, robots are a central part of the early training process for fresh hires. Sophisticated software does an impressive job of teaching company policies, guiding workers through educational modules, and serving as practice clients who interact as real humans do. The apps are so good that some accountants-in-training aren’t sure whether the instruction is coming from coworkers, bosses, or bots.
The medical field is perhaps the commercial world’s biggest user of high-end technology for teaching new workers how to get their jobs done. That’s because the entire industry, from bottom to top, has been following some of the biggest healthcare tech trends and upgrading its systems and processes for more than a decade. Key functions like billing, patient contact, routine health exams, consultations, and data collection are partially or fully automated. The advent of widespread telehealth video visits with doctors at the height of the COVID pandemic was a turning point for the healthcare sector.
How to Select the Right Welding Machine Equipment?
Welding is basically a process where two pieces of metal are joined together by heat and electric current. It is essential for construction, from fixing cars to building bridges. The equipment can be expensive, but there are ways to save money. You can get in touch with a welding equipment supplier and get the best deals.
This guide will direct you to the different types of welding equipment and how to choose the best one for your needs.
Welding machines come in many different types and can do various jobs. When purchasing a welder, consider a few factors: the duty cycle, voltage power, convenience, portability, AC and DC settings, and many more. Additionally, the welder will need both the power and sufficient operating time. All of these aspects should be considered when making a purchase.
Also, there are TIG, MIG, and stick welders. MIG welders use a wire that is fed through the gun. The wire melts and fuses with the metal. TIG welders use a tungsten electrode to create an arc. The arc melts the metal, and the tungsten electrode adds more heat to help with the process. Stick welders use a consumable electrode or stick to create the weld. They are effortless to use, portable, and relatively cheap. If you are unsure which will suit your purpose, talk to a welding equipment supplier.
The essential part of the welding process is the electrodes. Electrodes are the pieces of metal that are used to create the weld. Stick welding is the most popular type of arc welding. It uses a consumable electrode to produce the weld.
The most common type of electrode used for arc welding is the E6010. The E6010 electrode has a high carbon content, making it very brittle. It makes it suitable for use on thin sheet metal, as it does not require as much heat to melt the metal and produce a weld bead.
Welders often list E6011, E6013, and E7018 as excellent choices for mild steel work because they produce an attractive appearance with minimal distortion.
The clamps hold the pieces of metal together while they are being welded. They come in many different shapes and sizes, but all clamps have one thing in common- they grip the metal tightly so that it does not move while it is being welded.
There are many clamps, but the most common type is the C-clamp. The C-clamp has a curved bar that grips the metal and two screws that tighten down on the bar to hold it in place.
Angle grinders are an essential tool for any welder. One can use them to grind down the welded area to create a smooth finish or remove any excess weld material. Depending on their size, grinders vary from 500 to 2500 watts. They have a variety of applications, from cutting and grinding metal to removing rust and paint.
When choosing an angle grinder, consider the size of the disk and the wattage. The most crucial aspect is the size of the disk; the bigger the disk, the more material it can cut or grind. The higher the wattage, the more dynamic the grinder will be.
These helmets are an essential part of safety gear. They protect your eyes and face from sparks, heat, and UV radiation. Helmets come in various styles, including standard, auto-darkening, and digital. Hence select one very carefully.
There are a variety of gloves available on the market. The most crucial factor to consider when selecting welding gloves is the type you will be doing. Each type of work requires different kinds of gloves.
This clamp attaches to the welder and the workpiece and helps ground the welder. It helps to protect the welder from electric shock and prevents sparks from flying into the air and causing a fire hazard. Welders should always ensure their grounding clamps are correctly attached and in good condition before beginning any project.
Clothing is an essential part of your safety gear. You need to wear clothes that will protect you from sparks and heat. Loose-fitting clothes are a bad idea because they can easily catch on fire. It’s best to wear tight-fitting clothes made from fire-resistant materials.
Fire extinguishers are a must-have in any workshop. Make sure you have one that is rated for flammable liquid fires. Fume extraction systems remove harmful fumes from the area. Welding screens protect you from sparks and UV radiation. Shielding helps protect you from arc flashes and explosions.
When selecting welding machine equipment, it is essential to consider the needs of the welder and the type of project you are working on. The suitable machine and equipment will make the process more efficient and produce better quality welds.
Critical Things to Consider When Choosing a Portable Sandblaster
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