In our everyday life, we are optimizing variables all the time based on our personal choices, requirements, and preferences even unconsciously. We use optimization techniques all day, for instance, we choose the shortest route to avoid traffic when going to work, figure out and decide to take a quick walk around the campus during our free time, and schedule cabs in advance to reach on time. Most of the optimizations we do are about saving time because time is very important in today’s world.
Optimization has become an integrated part of our lives and as our lives revolve around technologies, it has also become an integrated part of technological products. Optimization is the ultimate goal present at the heart of all statistical and Machine Learning techniques that are widely used in data science. As a result optimization algorithms have been created; one such algorithm is Gradient Descent in Machine Learning.
What is Gradient Descent?
Gradient Descent is an optimization algorithm that is used for finding the minimum of a function. In terms of Machine Learning, it is used for updating parameters in a model. Based on the algorithms that were used, parameters can be of various types – coefficients (in linear regression) and weights (in neural networks). To understand the concept of Gradient Descent through a real-life example, think of a hypothetical situation in which a person has to descend into a valley blindfolded. Anyone in a situation like this would firstly take careful steps to find a slope. Once they find a downward slope, they’ll follow it and repeat their steps until they’ve completely descended into the valley, in other words, reached the minima.
This is exactly what the Gradient Descent Algorithm does in a machine. The inclination or slope is the cost function and the role of Gradient Descent is to provide direction and velocity (rate of learning) of movement to find a point where the cost is minimum or in other words, the minima of the cost function. A cost function is“a function that maps an event or values of one or more variables onto a real number intuitively representing some ‘cost’ associated with the event.”
The Application of Gradient Descent
The foremost goal of any Machine Learning algorithm is to build a model. A model is a hypothesis, which can be used to find out estimation for Y based on X. For example – Let’s say we have some data about different houses regarding their price, size, material, etc. and we want to predict the cost of a house based on its size. For one house, one may do it by a manual comparative analysis but let’s assume we need to know the cost for many houses. In such cases, we would like to predict a continuous output for a given number of inputs. It’s a regression problem that can be solved by an optimization algorithm of Machine Learning, such as Gradient Descent. Gradient descent can help to find a line of best fit for a given number of inputs (X values) and provide any number of outputs (Y values).
Types of Gradient Descent Algorithms
- Batch Gradient Descent – It is used to process training examples for all the iterations. It can get computationally expensive when there are a lot of training examples. In such cases, other types of Gradient Descents are preferred.
- Stochastic Gradient Descent – The word ‘stochastic’ refers to a ‘random probability’. For a random probability, a random selection is done. Thus, in a Stochastic Gradient Descent, instead of selecting the whole data set, random samples are selected for all the iterations. Since this type of Gradient Descent only uses a single sample to perform all the iterations, it is not computationally expensive. The sample is randomly shuffled and selected from the dataset. The parameters get updated after each repetition; therefore, it’s faster than Batch Gradient Descent.
- Mini Batch Gradient Descent – It is the fastestform ofGradient Descent which can be used even when there is a large number of training examples. It processes the batch at once. It uses very less iterations, regardless of the number of training samples.
Challenges Faced in the Execution of Gradient Descent
Gradient Descent is a very useful optimization algorithm but it is not perfect and has some drawbacks. There are many cases in which gradient descent cannot be used or doesn’t perform well. It happens when one faces different sorts of challenges during the execution of Gradient Descent. There are mainly three types of challenges:
If the data is arranged in a way that causes a non-convex optimization problem then performing Gradient Descent on it becomes troublesome. Gradient Descent only works for data arranged to cause a well-defined convex optimization problem. In a convex optimization problem, there are many minimal points. The lowest point is called the global minimum whereas the rest, are local minima. It is important to reach the global minimum by avoiding local minima. Furthermore, Gradient Descent cannot be used in a saddle point problem as well. In such a problem, the gradient can be zero even for a non-optimal point.
An improper execution while using Gradient Descent can cause several problems such as a vanishing gradient problem. It happens when the size of the gradient is either too large or too small, which leads to no convergence.
Accessing the Metaverse on the Oculus Quest 2
With Facebook’s parent corporation renaming to Meta, individuals are left with just one question: How can I enter the Metaverse? Virtual reality is growing, and Meta has emerged as a major player. While some individuals are excited by this topic, others just want to know more about it.
Then there are some who are seeking a way into this realm. If you own an Oculus Quest 2, you aren’t far away from arriving there and experiencing the magic for yourself. Continue reading to learn how to join the Metaverse with Oculus Quest 2.
Before we take off with our guide to the Metaverse, we should place a tiny disclaimer here. All sorts of Meta-adventures can only be accessed if you’re rocking a capable internet connection. For many of you out there that might not be an issue.
But if you find yourself in the pinch of a population that may have to struggle with their internet speeds then boy do we have a recommendation for you. Centurylink internet deals offer you and their vast assortment of customers a mighty selection of choices to choose from. What they all have in common is that neither of these lets you down in any capacity. So go ahead. Give it a try and unlock the Metaverse in all its glory.
So, what is the Metaverse? And how does it connect to the Latest Oculus?
Aside from being a fancy term today, the Metaverse is a synthesis of several technologies, including virtual, augmented, and material reality. It blurs the distinction between real-life and online activities. Doesn’t it seem intriguing? This technological mix is a virtual world in which you may construct your avatar and recreate yourself in an online world.
It transports you to an entirely new virtual environment with money, assets, a neighborhood, and other features. The Oculus Quest 2 is a virtual reality headset that is ideal for folks who wish to play games and travel to interactive experiences in VR without having to use a PC or phone. It is sleek, thorough, and strong enough to provide you with an unforgettable experience. Additionally, The Oculus Quest 2 system has a plethora of notable apps and games. So, if you’re utilizing it to travel to the Metaverse, you’re doing it correctly.
Accessing the Metaverse
The appealing aspect of studying the Metaverse is that there are various methods to join its area. No, there is no specialized Metaverse application to the notion. Instead, it exists in many forms across several platforms, allowing you to explore the digital cosmos. Several games and applications allow you to enter the arena, play, and interact using your avatar.
If you want to visit the Metaverse and forget yourself for a bit, you must have at minimum one such app or game installed on your Quest 2. If you think that you’re prepared to immerse yourself into Metaverse with Oculus Quest 2, let’s talk about what you’ll need to get the most out of this experience:
· Oculus Quest 2
You’ll need an Oculus Quest 2 headset to fully immerse yourself in the Metaverse. Know that VR can provide the interactive experience you want. It finally propels Quest 2 on an incredible trip. Furthermore, make sure that the battery capacity of your Oculus Quest 2 is at its maximum or at least at a reasonable proportion since operating it for lengthy periods of time can deplete the battery and leave you unhappy.
· Have the Right App
There isn’t a single app devoted to the Metaverse. There are numerous intriguing applications and games that might help you live the experience. You can find several popular applications and games that have the taste of the Metaverse idea and allow you to explore it. If you’re still confused and want an absolute ground-up guide on how to get a taste, then keep on reading!
Best Apps for Trying out the Metaverse
This is one more item to double-check before proceeding to the Oculus Quest 2 Metaverse entry stages. We’ve compiled a list of the top 5 games and applications for experiencing Metaverse. Several of these games may be familiar to you if you are a gamer. Please keep in mind that some of these games may not be available in your area. But you may look them over and decide which one you want.
· Horizon Worlds
Horizon Worlds, a social software by Meta, is one of the most popular experiences that may bring you and your friends together to accomplish a variety of activities. Users in Horizon Worlds may join in as avatars and engage in activities such as chatting, visiting other locations, playing a variety of games, and so on. You may even enter the escape room using this app. You may unwind and live in the moment there. It is a terrific free platform for making everything you can conceive a reality.
This app was quite popular before the release of Oculus Quest 2 and continues to be so now. It is one of the greatest free experiences for getting a sense of the Metaverse idea. VRChat allows you to personalize your avatar and navigate between worlds. The nicest thing is that you may select from a variety of unique worlds set in various settings. So you might be sitting at your favorite street café one minute and dancing to your music the next.
· Rec Room
Rec Room transports you to a world filled with captivating visuals. Like the other games on the list, you may put on the masquerade of your avatar in this app and travel around seeking entertaining things to do. You can spend your time entertaining others or relaxing alone. Rec Room’s strategy, which is more focused on gaming, sets it apart from the other possibilities. It features a diverse selection of games for Oculus Quest 2 users.
Metaverse is brimming with possibilities at the moment. Though it seems like a certain niche of people is currently interested in it, but with more streamlined opportunities inside its apps and integration of companies like Nike and TikTok inside of it, many more people will soon be flocking to it. It’s best to go grab your Oculus now and be one of the first to be enjoying this booming industry.
How Business Will Be Driven by Data Science in 2023
Data automation, which has been in vogue for quite some time, is required by the developments in the data science sector. Industry analysts predict that as large IT organizations aim to automate internal procedures, automation will spread further. If you are looking to make a career in this field, do check-out Data Scientist Course.
Before knowing the impact of Data Science on business, let us first understand what is meant by the term, Data Science!
What is Data Science?
Data Science tries to reveal hidden patterns from unstructured data using a range of tools, algorithms, and machine learning ideas.
Useful knowledge and concealed information may be evaluated, analyzed, and retrieved from raw data in the large field of “data science” employing a variety of techniques, theories, concepts, tools, and technologies.
Data science makes it possible to examine, assess, and model data using theoretical, mathematical, computational, and other useful techniques. It is designed to assist people and organizations in using data that has been saved, consumed, and managed to make better decisions.
Then, who is a Data Scientist? And what does he/she do?
Who is a Data Scientist?
Data scientists are the IT specialists who perform data wrangling on both structured and unstructured data after collecting and analyzing it. Data Scientistsrequire a vast variety of data for numerous tasks, such as developing hypotheses, examining market and consumer trends, and drawing conclusions, data scientists require this vast amount of data.
Although in certain companies, part of the duties will be split between the data engineers and data analysts who will sort through the input and change the characteristics before giving it to the machine learning engineers to apply different modeling approaches to obtain the solutions. The data scientist will next be responsible for interpreting and finding answers to the business concerns.
Now that we know the term, let us understand how business will be driven by Data Science in the upcoming year!
- Pressure-testing the staff to adopt best practises and pay attention to crucial issues
A data scientist must, among other things, make sure that the team is knowledgeable with the company’s analytics product. By demonstrating to the team how to utilize the system to gather insights and inspire action, they set them up for success. Once the workforce is familiar with the capabilities of the product, they may turn their attention to solving important business problems.
- Advanced speech, character, or picture recognition
Google Lens, Facebook’s facial recognition algorithms, and speech recognition software like Siri, Cortana, and Alexa are all excellent examples of Data Science applications in picture, speech, and character recognition.
- Opportunities for Identification
Data scientists work with the organization’s present analytics system and challenge presumptions and procedures in order to create new techniques and analytical algorithms. They must continually and consistently increase the value that is obtained from the organization’s data in order to do their duties.
- Machine intelligence
The technology development that will probably have the most influence on how we live, work, and do business in the future is artificial intelligence (AI). By using it, business analytics will be able to make more accurate predictions, spend less time on laborious processes like data collecting and cleaning, and empower employees to act on data-driven insights regardless of their position or level of technical expertise.
As players go to higher levels, games of today employ machine learning algorithms to upgrade or develop. In motion games, the opponent (a computer) may analyse a player’s previous actions and modify its approach accordingly. All of this is now possible thanks to data science.
- Analysis of Big Data Automation
The world is changing significantly thanks to automation. It has sparked many corporate revolutions that have led to sustained proficiency. The industrialization of big data analytics over the past few years has produced the finest automation capabilities.
By giving firms prescriptive and predictive capabilities along with other insights, Analytic Process Automation (APA) promotes growth. Businesses have been able to get quality with effective outcomes and reasonable prices because of this.
- Data as a Service (DaaS)
Forecasts predict that by 2023, the data as a service (DaaS) business would generate revenues of $11 billion. This industry has developed to the point that even newer, smaller companies may readily join and make money. Data may be used to generate value in even the most narrow markets.
Data as a service might be an intriguing approach to create income if the data produced by your business has value for other people. Therefore, now is a fantastic opportunity to reconsider your data offering and find fresh methods to participate.
- Wellness and Technology
Data is a crucial component of the health and wellness industry, which is increasingly significant in our lives. For instance, businesses are attempting to find and adopt methods that will enhance the health of their employees. Medical services are also learning new ways to interact with their patients.
Companies may now gather medical information from all around the world and utilize it in novel ways to find therapies more quickly and early than ever before. We anticipate that this tendency will contribute to the development of more effective healthcare systems in the future.
- Systems for making recommendations
Internet behemoths and other companies have zealously used recommendation engines to market their goods based on consumers’ past search results and preferences.
Future of Data Science
There will undoubtedly be a greater need for data scientists who can combine technical talent in fields like statistics and computer science with industry-specific knowledge in industries like marketing or healthcare. Any digitally oriented company now loses its competitive edge if its data supply is cut off, even temporarily. Data Scientist Roles and Responsibilities usually include assisting businesses in making sense of their operations, clients, and markets. With their mix of abilities, data scientists will be able to not only make sense of complicated information but also come up with innovative solutions to issues that would otherwise be unsolvable. As a result, outstanding data scientists will need to have a strong sense of creativity.
Which Is the Best Possible Way to Fix a VPN Error on a Streaming Service?
Online streaming service is ruling the entertainment industry. But unfortunately, all of these streaming services are not available in many countries.
So, people use virtual private networks (VPN) to break the geo-restriction and stream the service. But unfortunately, a few VPNs may not work properly. That’s why we are here with Recommendations for best-streaming VPNs.
Don’t worry! Most of the issues are very common and easy to solve. If you are facing trouble while streaming online, this is the right place to know about the solution.
What Are the Best Ways to Fix a VPN Error during Online streaming?
If your VPN is not working properly, you can easily fix it after knowing a few basics about it. Most of these are related to VPN settings and Device settings. That’s all.
Every solution is simple but a bit technical. So, without wasting time, let’s find out the usability of VPN to improve your online streaming experience.
Check the Internet Connection
Most of the time, VPN does not work properly because of the poor internet connection. All the VPN helps you stream like butter, ensuring a better internet connection. However, the poor connection makes the connection unsteady and inconsistent.
To find the issue, run the internet speed test online. If it is showing a poor result, restart your modem or router. It will fix the speed or lost connection issues.
Device Date and Time
If your device’s date and time are incorrect, then VPN will not work properly. There are only a few types of VPN. Check the date and time.
If you cannot set the date time, turn off the automatic update. Now try to select the date and time manually. Remember to check the region as well. Make it correct.
Different VPN Server
You might not know, but sometimes servers get overloaded or have other issues that make a VPN unstable. For that, connecting to different servers of different regions can solve the problem.
Try switching the protocols from TCP to UDP. It makes the streaming rules in other ways. Few streaming services can identify the IP address that VPN provides. It stopped instantly and ban it.
Reconnecting to another service in the same country allows streaming it properly. Best VPNs come with tons of options for the server. Here is the table to guide you about it.
|VPN Service||Working VPN Servers|
|ExpressVPN||Australia: Australia – Melbourne Canada: Canada – Toronto Japan: Japan – Tokyo UK: UK – London US: USA – New Jersey|
|PrivateVPN||Australia: Australia – Sydney Canada: Canada – Toronto Japan: Japan – Tokyo UK: UK – London US: USA – New York|
|Proton VPN||Australia: AU#19 Canada: CA#261 Japan: JP#77 UK: UK#52 US: US-NY#52|
A firewall is one of the biggest culprits that block the proper way to run a VPN. To solve this issue, check your firewall setting first. Make sure the firewall is granted to connect the internet with a VPN.
If it is not possible, temporarily disable your firewall. Making your VPN in the firewall’s whitelist also does the same work for you.
Sometimes, antivirus also conflicts with VPN. Do the same as you do with a firewall. Then, your VPN will be free to run smoothly on your device.
Are you installing a VPN for the first time on your device? Some VPN clients change the DNS of their VPN after the initial installation. That means the user needs to set it manually. It helps to improve the streaming speed and bypass geo-blocks.
Clear the cache and Flush DNS
Online streaming services like Netflix and Hulu use the value that comes from your ISP. Most of the time, it searches for the values of the previous session.
There is a chance of a conflict between the DNS and VPN. That’s why flashing them is the way to solve this problem.
On the other hand, delete the cache from your browser. You will find the option to clear it from the “privacy and history” setting.
Reinstall the VPN
Reinstalling your VPN is also another way to fix some issues for streaming online. Uninstalling the VPN from your device will also delete all leftover files and the related setting. Reinstalling the VPN means you will get a fresh street for the VPN and stream online.
What Happens When All the Methods are Not Working?
Don’t panic if all the methods we have discussed are not working. In this case, installing the VPN on a different device can work. In addition, it can help you to detect specific problems with the VPN or the streaming service that causes issues.
What Are the Best VPNs You Can Use for Streaming online?
There are tons of options available for the VPN. Some are free, and some offer a premium service with a paid plan. Unfortunately, to stream online, only a few do the best job. Here is the best recommendation for VPNs given below.
VPN makes the streaming smooth like butter from different countries. But there is no guarantee it will work on your device like others or not.
If it is not working, it is facing some unknown issues. After reading this article, you already know which possible issues you can face while using a VPN to stream online.
Always try to use a streaming-optimized VPN to avoid such problems. Also, keep clearing the cache, and change the server if it needs to be fixed. Most of the time, these two things make your VPN stable.
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